Hardness Testing Examination
Hardness is resistance of material to plastic deformation caused by indentation. Sometimes hardness refers to resistance of material to scratching or abrasion. In some cases relatively quick and simple hardness test may substitute tensile test. Hardness may be measured from a small sample of material without destroying it. There are hardness methods, allowing to measure hardness onsite.
Principle of any hardness test method is forcing an indenter into the sample surface followed by measuring dimensions of the indentation (depth or actual surface area of the indentation). Hardness is not fundamental property and its value depends on the combination of yield strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity.